Apology of Failure: Three tales on a strategy for success when all the odds are against you

Philippe Forêt, University of Zurich / University of Orleans

This paper will examine failure and redemption in in-between areas. Keeping a facus on methodological issues, we will examine case studies from Paris in the 1770s, Hong Kong in the 1950s and Macau today. I will argue that success after failure depends on the articulation of place, values and community, the creation of an area open to negotiations, and the command of new tools.